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Bunionectomy – Austin – Akin

PREOPERATIVE DIAGNOSIS: Bunion, right foot.

POSTOPERATIVE DIAGNOSIS: Bunion, right foot.

PROCEDURE PERFORMED: Austin/akin bunionectomy, right foot.

HISTORY: This 77-year-old African-American female presents to ABCD General Hospital with the above chief complaint. The patient states she has had a bunion deformity for as long as she can remember that has progressively become worse and more painful. The patient has attempted conservative treatment without long-term relief of symptoms and desires surgical treatment.

PROCEDURE DETAILS: An IV was instituted by Department of Anesthesia in the preop holding area. The patient was transported to the operating room and placed on the operating table in the supine position with a safety strap across her lap. Copious amounts of Webril were placed around the right ankle followed by blood pressure cuff. After adequate sedation by the Department of Anesthesia, a total of 15 cc of 1:1 mixture of 1% lidocaine plain and 0.5% Marcaine plain was injected in a Mayo block type fashion. The foot was then prepped and draped in the usual sterile orthopedic fashion. The foot was elevated to the operating table and exsanguinated with an Esmarch bandage. The pneumatic ankle tourniquet was inflated to 250 mmHg. The foot was lowered to the operating field and the stockinet was reflected. The foot was cleansed with wet and dry sponge.

Attention was directed to the bunion deformity on the right foot. An approximately 6 cm dorsal medial incision was created over the first metatarsophalangeal joint. The incision was then deepened with a #15 blade. All vessels encountered were ligated with hemostasis. The skin and subcutaneous tissue were then undermined off of the capsule medially. A dorsal linear capsular incision was then created over the first metatarsophalangeal joint. The periosteum and capsule were then reflected off of the first metatarsal. There was noted to be a prominent medial eminence. The articular cartilage was healthy for patient’s age and race. Attention was then directed to the first interspace where a lateral release was performed.. A combination of sharp and blunt dissection was carried out until the adductor tendon insertions were identified. The adductor tendons were transected as well as a lateral capsulotomy was performed. The extensor digitorum brevis tendon was identified and transected. Care was taken to preserve the extensor hallucis longus to make sure that tendon that was transected was the extensor hallucis brevis at the _______ digitorum. Extensor hallucis brevis tendon was transected and care was taken to preserve the extensor halucis longus tendon. Attention was then directed to medial eminence, which was resected with a sagittal saw. Sagittal was then used to create a long dorsal arm outside the Austin type osteotomy and the first metatarsal. The head of the first metatarsal was then translocated laterally until correction of the intermetatarsal angle was noted. The head was intact. A 0.45 K-wire was inserted through subcutaneously from proximal medial to distal lateral. A second K-wire was then inserted from distal lateral to proximal plantar medial. Adequate fixation was noted at the osteotomy site. The K-wires were bent, cut, and pin caps were placed. Attention was then directed to the proximal phalanx of the hallux. The capsular periostem was reflected off of the base of the proximal phalanx. A sagittal was then used to create an akin osteotomy closing wedge. The apex was lateral and the base of the wedge was medial. The wedge was removed in the total and the osteotomy site was then feathered until closure was achieved without compression. Two 0.45 K-wires were then inserted, one from distal medial to proximal lateral and the second from distal lateral to proximal medial across the osteotomy site. Adequate fixation was noted at the osteotomy site and the osteotomy was closed. The toe was noted to be in a markedly more rectus position. Sagittal saw was then used to resect the remaining prominent medial eminence. The area was then smoothed with a reciprocating rasp. There was noted to be a small osteophytic formation laterally over first metatarsal head that was removed with a rongeur and smoothed with a reciprocating rasp. The area was then inspected for any remaining short bony edges, none were noted.

Copious amounts of sterile saline was then used to flush the surgical site. The capsule was closed with #3-0 Vicryl. Subcutaneous closure was performed with #4-0 Vicryl followed by running subcuticular #5-0 Vicryl. Steri-Strips were applied and 1 cc of dexamethasone phosphate was injected into the surgical site.

Dressings consisted of #0-1 silk, copious Betadine, 4 x 4s, Kling, Kerlix, and Coban. The pneumatic ankle tourniquet was released and immediate hyperemic flush was noted to all five digits of the right foot. A _______ cast was then applied postoperatively. The patient tolerated the above procedure and anesthesia well without complications. The patient was transported from the operating room to the PACU with vital signs stable and vascular status intact to the right foot. The patient was given postoperative pain prescription for Tylenol #3 and instructed to take one q4-6h. p.o. p.r.n. for pain. The patient is to follow up with Dr. X in his office as directed.