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Fiberoptic Flexible Bronchoscopy

1. Right hyoid mass, rule out carcinomatosis.
2. Weight loss.
3. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

1. Right hyoid mass, rule out carcinomatosis.
2. Weight loss.
3. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
4. Changes consistent with acute and chronic bronchitis.
5. Severe mucosal irregularity with endobronchial narrowing of the right middle and lower lobes.
6. Left vocal cord irregularity.

PROCEDURE PERFORMED: Fiberoptic flexible bronchoscopy with lavage, brushings, and endobronchial mucosal biopsies of the right bronchus intermedius/right lower lobe.

ANESTHESIA: Demerol 50 mg with Versed 3 mg as well as topical cocaine and lidocaine solution.

LOCATION OF PROCEDURE: Endoscopy suite #4.

After informed consent was obtained and following the review of the procedure including procedure as well as possible risks and complications were explained and consent was previously obtained, the patient was sedated with the above stated medication and the patient was continuously monitored on pulse oximetry, noninvasive blood pressure, and EKG monitoring. Prior to starting the procedure, the patient was noted to have a baseline oxygen saturation of 86% on room air. Subsequently, she was given a bronchodilator treatment with Atrovent and albuterol and subsequent saturation increased to approximately 90% to 91% on room air.

The patient was placed on a supplemental oxygen as the patient was sedated with above-stated medication. As this occurred, the bronchoscope was inserted into the right naris with good visualization of the nasopharynx and oropharynx. The cords were noted to oppose bilaterally on phonation. There was some slight mucosal irregularity noted on the vocal cord on the left side. Additional topical lidocaine was instilled on the vocal cords, at which point the bronchoscope was introduced into the trachea, which was midline in nature. The bronchoscope was then advanced to the distal trachea and additional lidocaine was instilled. At this time, the bronchoscope was further advanced through the main stem and additional lidocaine was instilled. Bronchoscope was then further advanced into the right upper lobe, which revealed no evidence of any endobronchial lesion. The mucosa was diffusely friable throughout. Bronchoscope was then slowly withdrawn into the right main stem and additional lidocaine was instilled. At this point, the bronchoscope was then advanced to the right bronchus intermedius. At this time, it was noted that there was severe mucosal irregularities of nodular in appearance significantly narrowing the right lower lobe and right middle lobe opening. The mucosal area throughout this region was severely friable. Additional lidocaine was instilled as well as topical epinephrine. At this time, bronchoscope was maintained in this region and endobronchial biopsies were performed. At the initial attempt of inserting biopsy forceps, some resistance was noted within the proximal channel at this time making advancement of the biopsy forceps out of the proximal channel impossible. So the biopsy forceps was withdrawn and the bronchoscope was completely withdrawn and new bronchoscope was then utilized. At this time, bronchoscope was then reinserted into the right naris and subsequently advanced to the vocal cords into the right bronchus intermedius without difficulty. At this time, the biopsy forceps were easily passed and visualized in the right bronchus intermedius. At this time, multiple mucosal biopsies were performed with some mild oozing noted. Several aliquots of normal saline lavage followed. After completion of multiple biopsies there was good hemostasis. Cytology flushing was also performed in this region and subsequently several aliquots of additional normal saline lavage was followed. Bronchoscope was unable to be passed distally to the base of the segment of the right lower lobe or distal to the further visualized endobronchial anatomy of the right middle lobe subsegments. The bronchoscope was then withdrawn to the distal trachea.

At this time, bronchoscope was then advanced to the left main stem. Additional lidocaine was instilled. The bronchoscope was advanced to the left upper and lower lobe subsegments. There was no endobronchial lesion visualized. There is mild diffuse erythema and fibromucosa was noted throughout. No endobronchial lesion was visualized in the left bronchial system. The bronchoscope was then subsequently further withdrawn to the distal trachea and readvanced into the right bronchial system. At this time, bronchoscope was readvanced into the right bronchus intermedius and additional aliquots of normal saline lavage until cleared. There is no gross bleeding evidenced at this time or diffuse mucosal erythema and edema present throughout. The bronchoscope was subsequently withdrawn and the patient was sent to recovery room. During the bronchoscopy, the patient noted ________ have desaturation and required increasing FiO2 with subsequent increased saturation to 93% to 94%. The patient remained at this level of saturation or greater throughout the remaining of the procedure.

The patient postprocedure relates having some intermittent hemoptysis prior to the procedure as well as moderate exertional dyspnea. This was confirmed by her daughter and mother who were also present at the bedside postprocedure. The patient did receive a nebulizer bronchodilator treatment immediately prebronchoscopy and postprocedure as well. The patient also admitted to continued smoking in spite of all of the above. The patient was extensively counseled regarding the continued smoking especially with her present symptoms. She was advised regarding smoking cessation. The patient was also placed on a prescription of prednisone 2 mg tablets starting at 40 mg a day decreasing every three days to continue to wean off. The patient was also administered Solu-Medrol 60 mg IV x1 in recovery room. There was no significant bronchospastic component noted, although because of the severity of the mucosal edema, erythema, and her complaints, short course of steroids will be instituted. The patient was also advised to refrain from using any aspirin or other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medication because of her hemoptysis. At this time, the patient was also advised that if hemoptysis were to continue or worsen or develop progressive dyspnea, to either contact myself, , or return to ABCD Emergency Room for evaluation of possible admission. However, the above was reviewed with the patient in great detail as well as with her daughter and mother who were at the bedsite at this time as well.

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