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Total Knee Arthoplasty – Right – 1

PREOPERATIVE DIAGNOSIS: Severe degenerative joint disease of the right knee.

POSTOPERATIVE DIAGNOSIS: Severe degenerative joint disease of the right knee.

PROCEDURE: Right total knee arthroplasty using a Biomet cemented components, 62.5-mm right cruciate-retaining femoral component, 71-mm Maxim tibial component, and 12-mm polyethylene insert with 31-mm patella. All components were cemented with Cobalt G.



TOURNIQUET TIME: Less than 60 minutes.

The patient was taken to the Postanesthesia Care Unit in stable condition. The patient tolerated the procedure well.

INDICATIONS: The patient is a 51-year-old female complaining of worsening right knee pain. The patient had failed conservative measures and having difficulties with her activities of daily living as well as recurrent knee pain and swelling. The patient requested surgical intervention and need for total knee replacement.

All risks, benefits, expectations, and complications of surgery were explained to her in great detail and she signed informed consent. All risks including nerve and vessel damage, infection, and revision of surgery as well as component failure were explained to the patient and she did sign informed consent. The patient was given antibiotics preoperatively.

PROCEDURE DETAIL: The patient was taken to the operating suite and placed in supine position on the operating table. She was placed in the seated position and a spinal anesthetic was placed, which the patient tolerated well. The patient was then moved to supine position again and a well-padded tourniquet was placed on the right thigh. Right lower extremity was prepped and draped in sterile fashion. All extremities were padded prior to this.

The right lower extremity, after being prepped and draped in the sterile fashion, the tourniquet was elevated and maintained for less than 60 minutes in this case. A midline incision was made over the right knee and medial parapatellar arthrotomy was performed. Patella was everted. The infrapatellar fat pad was incised and medial and lateral meniscectomy was performed and the anterior cruciate ligament was removed. The posterior cruciate ligament was intact.

There was severe osteoarthritis of the lateral compartment on the lateral femoral condyle as well as mild-to-moderate osteoarthritis in the medial femoral compartment as well severe osteoarthritis along the patellofemoral compartment. The medial periosteal tissue on the proximal tibia was elevated to the medial collateral ligament and medial collateral ligament was left intact throughout the entirety of the case.

At the extramedullary tibial guide, an extended cut was made adjusting for her alignment. Once this was performed, excess bone was removed. The reamer was placed along on the femoral canal, after which a 6-degree valgus distal cut was made along the distal femur. Once this was performed, the distal femoral size in 3 degrees external rotation, 62.5-mm cutting block was placed in 3 degrees external rotation with anterior and posterior cuts as well as anterior and posterior Chamfer cuts remained in the standard fashion. Excess bone was removed.

Next, the tibia was brought anterior and excised to 71 mm. It was then punched in standard fashion adjusting for appropriate rotation along the alignment of the tibia. Once this was performed, a 71-mm tibial trial was placed as well as a 62.5-mm femoral trial was placed with a 12-mm polyethylene insert.

Next, the patella was cut in the standard fashion measuring 31 mm and a patella bed was placed. The knee was taken for range of motion; had excellent flexion and extension as well as adequate varus and valgus stability. There was no loosening appreciated. There is no laxity appreciated along the posterior cruciate ligament.

Once this was performed, the trial components were removed. The knee was irrigated with fluid and antibiotics, after which the cement was put on the back table, this being Cobalt G, it was placed on the tibia. The tibial components were tagged in position and placed on the femur. The femoral components were tagged into position. All excess cement was removed ___ placement of patella. It was tagged in position. A 12-mm polyethylene insert was placed; knee was held in extension and all excess cement was removed. The cement hardened with the knee in full extension, after which any extra cement was removed.

The wounds were copiously irrigated with saline and antibiotics, and medial parapatellar arthrotomy was closed with #2 Vicryl. Subcutaneous tissue was approximated with #2-0 Vicryl and the skin was closed with staples. The patient was awakened from general anesthetic, transferred to the gurney, and taken into postanesthesia care unit in stable condition. The patient tolerated the procedure well.

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